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达尔文不知道:阑尾并非可有可无

时间:2010-07-27 21:52    来源:    作者: 点击:
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    A study in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology finds that many more animals have appendixes than was thought, and that the appendix is not merely a remnant of a digestive organ called the cecum. All of which means that the appendix might not be so useless.

    揭晓在《进化生物学杂志》(Journal of Evolutionary Biology )上的一项研究发明,和我们原本以为的不一样,更多动物具有阑尾。该研究以为阑尾不只仅是消化器官盲肠进化后的残留部分。悉数这些研究功效意味着阑尾年夜概有用。

    That's No Vestigial Organ, That's My Appendix

    Two years ago, Duke University Medical Center researchers said that the supposedly useless appendix is actually where good gut bacteria safely hide out during some unpleasant intestinal conditions.

    Now the research team has looked at the appendix over evolutionary history. They found that animals have had appendixes for about 80 million years. And the organ has evolved separately at least twice, once among the weird Australian marsupials and another time in the regular old mammal lineage that we belong to.

    Darwin thought that only a few animals have an appendix and that the human version was what was left of a digestive organ called the cecum. But the new study found that 70 percent of rodent and primate groups have species with an appendix. And some living animals have a cecum and an appendix. If Darwin had known about species that had both organs, he probably would have revised his views of the appendix, the researchers note.

    Ironically, it's natural selection that keeps the human appendix from shrinking away completely. Because smaller ones are more likely to become infected. And keep your genes out of the pool.

    阑尾并非可有可无

    两年前,来自杜克年夜学医学中央(Duke University Medical Center)的研究职员说,过去被以为没有浸染的阑尾实际上有用,由于在肠底细况不好的时辰,体内好的肠菌恰是隐蔽在那儿那里。

    今朝该研究小组从进化论历史的角度来研究阑尾。他们发明动物有阑尾的时刻赶过了8切切年。阑尾至少有两次独登时进化过,一次是在澳年夜利亚的有袋类动物身上,这令人感想有些稀罕。此外一次是在凡是的迂腐哺乳类动物身上,而我们人类就属于哺乳类动物。

    达尔文以为,仅仅只有少部分动物具有阑尾,他还以为人的阑尾是盲肠进化历程中残留下来的部分。可是,这项新的研究发明,70%的啮齿动物和灵长目动物的物种具有阑尾。有些活着的动物既有盲肠又有阑尾。研究者们说,要是达尔文知道有这样的物种的话,他或者会变化他对阑尾的不雅概念。

    具有嘲讽意味的是,恰是自然选择使得人类的阑尾没有完全消散踪失。由于阑尾越小,它越轻易被传染。这样就可以把人类的基因贯串毗邻下来。

    Vocabulary:

    Evolutionary:进化论的

    Appendix:阑尾;(书、文件的)附录

    Remnant:残剩部分;残存部分

    Digestive:消化的

    Organ:器官

    Cecum:盲肠

    Useless:无用的

    Vestigial:残存的;退化的;残留的

    Supposedly:据信;据传;听说

    Gut:消化道;肠道

    Bacteria:细菌

    Intestinal:肠的

    Weird:稀罕的

    Marsupial: 有袋类动物(如袋鼠和树袋熊)

    Mammal: 哺乳动物

    Lineage: 血统;家系;总系

    Rodent: 啮齿动物

    Primate: 灵长类

    Revise: 改削;改正

    Ironically: 具有嘲讽意味的

    Shrink: 缩小

    Infect: 传染

    Gene Pool: 基因库




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